“Biodegradable poly(lactic acid)/chitosan-modified montmorillonite nanocomposites: Preparation and characterization,” Polymer Degradation and Stability 91(9), 2198-2204. doi:10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2006.01.004. Flory, A., and Requesens, D. (2013). 2006). “Biobased performance bioplastic: Mirel,” Chemistry & Biology 16(1), 1-2. doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2009.01.001. Cellulosic nanofibres obtained from plant fibres have unique mechanical, electrical, chemical, and optical properties that can be utilized for diverse applications. Abraham, E., Deepa, L. A., Pothan, M., Jacob, S., Thomas, U., Cvelbar, R., and Anandjiwala. doi:10.1155/2011/837875. The sharp leaf points have been used as sewing needles. Kalia, S., Dufresne, A., Cherian, B. M., Kaith, B. S., Avérous, L., Njuguna, J., and Nassiopoulos, E. (2011). “Mechanical properties of natural fibre reinforced PVC composites: A review,” Sains Malaysiana 38(4), 531-535. In polymer composites, natural fibres usually provide strength, while the matrix provides binding to the fibres (Verma et al. Biocomposites can be employed in bioengineering or biomedical applications (Cheung et al. Biocomposites are already utilized in biomedical applications such as drug/gene delivery, tissue engineering, orthopedics, and cosmetic orthodontics. Natural fibres can be used for development of highly thermally stable and acoustic insulator materials (Puglia et al. “Mechanical performance of biocomposites based on PLA and PHBV reinforced with natural fibres – A comparative study to PP,” Composites Science and Technology 70(12), 1-37. 2012a). Abaca, a plant native to the Philippines, was once used widely for rope and is now being developed as an energy-saving replacement for glass fibres in cars and boats. Herman, D.E., et al. (2005). Individual fibers from yuccas were produced by soaking leaves in water, then pounding them with wooden clubs on flat rocks. The interaction of materials at the interface is essential to composite performance, and this can be affected by the tissue response in various ways. Stinging nettle plants were dried and used to make twine, ropes, and herring nets, The roots of White Spruce were used to sew canoes and snowshoes. (2009). Camel Hair. Natural fiber composites can be used for biomedical applications for bone and tissues repair and reconstruction (Dhandayuthapani et al. Majeed, K., Jawaid, M., Hassan, A., Abu Bakar, A., Abdul Khalil, H. P. S., Salema, A. Mechanical Properties of Natural Fibres for Composite Applications. Plant-based fibers such as flax, jute, sisal, hemp, and kenaf have been frequently used in the manufacturing of biocomposites. 2013). 2013). Zhou, S., and Wu, Z. Photo by Cheryl Beyer. In another interesting work, researchers reported that thermal stable nanocellulose from banana, jute, and PALF fibres can be used for various advanced nanotechnological applications (Abraham et al. It was probably used first in Asia. Table 6 summarizes some patent regarding application of natural fibre for biomedical applications. 2001). Volume 2011, Article ID 837875, 35 pages. “Physical modification of natural fibers and thermoplastic films for composites — A review,” Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials 22(2), 135-162. doi:10.1177/0892705708091860, Navarro, M., Michiardi, A., Castaño, O., and Planell, J. Nonwovens J. Biocomposites can be fabricated by combining biofibres such as oil palm, kenaf, industrial hemp, flax, jute, henequen, pineapple leaf fibre, sisal, wood, and various grasses with polymer matrices from either non-renewable (petroleum based) or renewable resources (Jawaid and Khalil 2011). Hard tissues are stiffer (with higher elastic modulus) and stronger (with higher tensile strength) than the soft tissues. J.E.G. damage to the environment. Also, additional tests are required to ensure that their specific composition, arrangement, and interaction are biocompatible too. Table 2 displays advantages and disadvantages of natural fibres products. 2001). Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences 365(1861), 2907-2919. doi:10.1098/rsta.2007.0006, Bhatnagar, A. (2005). 2001). Table 5. Mohanty, A. K., Misra, M., and Drzal, L. (2002). However, natural fibres generally exhibit poor water resistance, low durability, and poor fibre/matrix interfacial bonding that leads to a loss in final properties of the composites and ultimately hinders their industrial usage (Milanese et al. Mater. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J395v01n03_03. Giri, J., Adhikari, R., and Campus, T. (2013). The fibers may be chemically modified, like … People also used this important grass for sewing, basket weaving, and stuffing for pillows and mattresses. (2005a). Other researchers also reported that traditional plant-originated cellulose and cellulose-based materials (woven cotton gauze dressings) have been used in medical applications for many years and are mainly utilized to stop bleeding (Czaja et al. 1. The anisotropy of the elastic properties of the biological tissues has to be considered in the design criterion for implants made from composite biomaterials. Biomedical devices fabricated from composite materials are anti-corrosive and have high fracture toughness and higher resistance against fatigue failure as compared to metal alloys and ceramics (Teoh 2000). 2001. Recently, ongoing work has explored the use of palm tree fibres for industrial and biomedical applications (Anon 2013). Also Eichhorn et al. The property (tensile strength) of natural fiber composites has been found to vary depending on the type of fibers (Table 3), and the type of resin and manufacturing process. ), seed fibers (coir, cotton, and kapok), fruit fibres (oil palm, coir), stalk (wheat, rice, rye, etc. Definition. 3. A schematic diagram shows the potential use of biocomposites in the repair, reconstruction, and replacement of human hard tissues (Fig. The plant materials, like jute, contribute to the manufacturing of bags, ropes, and other materials. Moreover, in orthopedic or dental composites, friction in a moving part can scrape the matrix and expose the reinforcing material to the host and produce new challenges at the interface. Asokan, P., Firdoous, M., and Sonal, W. (2012a). Article submitted: January 24, 2014; Peer review completed: March 29, 2014; Revised version received: April 22, 2014; Accepted: May 4, 2014; Published: May 12, 2014. (2004). Sweet grass is another important member of the grass family used by Native Americans. “Potential materials for food packaging from nanoclay/natural fibres filled hybrid composites,” Materials & Design 46, 391-410. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2012.10.044, Mao, Z. (2012). Puglia, D., Biagiotti, J., and Kenny, J. Compared to synthetic fibres, natural fibres are often available at low cost and cause less health and environmental hazard problems for people producing the composites as compared to glass fibre based composites (Jawaid and Abdul Khalil 2011). Everitt, N. M., Aboulkhair, N. T., and Clifford, M. J. Morgan, C., and Nigam, Y. Plant fibres include seed hairs, such as cotton; stem (or bast) fibres, such as flax and hemp;leaf fibres, such as sisal; and husk fibres, such as coconut. In the 1980s, producers were able to make fine cloth suitable for clothing from hemp. Leaves were used to weave patterns into baskets and used for edge trimming on mats. There are many types of bio binders, of which the most common are shown in Fig. Chandramohan, D., and Marimuthu, K. (2011). For Ex: cotton, wool ,Silk ,flax, jute. Photo courtesy of U.S. Forest Service. Sweet grass was often burned to purify dancers in tribal ceremonies. Ramakrishna, S., Mayer, J., Wintermantel, E., and Leong, K. W. (2001). “Natural antibacterial material and its use,” China Patent CN1461827. Fibers derived from plant materials are used to make a wide array of products: Wide array of products made from native plant fibers. Tie the poles of wigwams together from a blend of hemp and linen and... Absorption properties porous fiber filler and vacuum sealing drainage device thereof, Patent. Biocomposites are already utilized in biomedical applications various applications of different types of according. That form Part of the tissues ( Fig Dr., Campus Box 8001Raleigh, NC 27695 of paper has. 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